Objective Sleep problems are common in children and adolescents with chronic pain. The revised Adolescent Sleep–Wake Scale (rASWS) is an internationally well-established instrument to assess sleep quality in adolescents. So far, no German version is available. The study aimed to provide a validated German version of the rASWS, specifically for use in children and adolescents with chronic pain.
Methods The translated questionnaire was validated in a sample of N = 159 pediatric outpatients with chronic pain (8-17 years; 65.4% female), who presented to a specialized pediatric pain center. For cross-validation a of community sample of N = 1348 school children was analyzed.
Results Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure of the original 10-item 3-factor model in the sample of children and adolescents with chronic pain, which showed poor model fit. Model modifications were carried out by deleting 3 items with low factor loadings stepwise. The overall model fit of the final 3-factor model containing 7 items was excellent. Cronbach’s α of the derived scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.86. Cross-validation in a community sample of school children confirmed the superiority of the 7-item model. The convergent validity of the measure was proved by moderate correlations between the rASWS and self-reported sleep problems. Associations with chronic pain characteristics were evident for pain-related disability.
Conclusions The use of the 7-item version of the rASWS for German-speaking children and adolescents with and without chronic pain is recommended as a self-report measure of sleep quality.